OCPJP 8 Upgrade (Java SE 6 to 8) 筆記




Language Enhancements

  • Develop code that uses String objects in the switch statement, binary literals, and numeric literals, including underscores in literals
  • Develop code that uses try-with-resources statements, including using classes that implement the AutoCloseable interface
  • Develop code that handles multiple Exception types in a single catch block
  • Use static and default methods of an interface including inheritance rules for a default method


  • Use collections from the java.util.concurrent package with a focus on the advantages over and differences from the traditional java.util collections
  • Use Lock, ReadWriteLock, and ReentrantLock classes in the java.util.concurrent.locks and java.util.concurrent.atomic packages to support lock-free thread-safe programming on single variables
  • Use Executor, ExecutorService, Executors, Callable, and Future to execute tasks using thread pools
  • Use the parallel Fork/Join Framework


  • Describe the advantages of localizing an application and developing code that defines, reads, and sets the locale with a Locale object
  • Build a resource bundle for a locale and call a resource bundle from an application
  • Create and manage date- and time-based events by using LocalDate, LocalTime, LocalDateTime, Instant, Period, and Duration, including a combination of date and time in a single object
  • Format dates, numbers, and currency values for localization with the NumberFormat and DateFormat classes, including number and date format patterns
  • Work with dates and times across time zones and manage changes resulting from daylight savings

Java File I/O (NIO.2)

  • Operate on file and directory paths by using the Path class
  • Check, delete, copy, or move a file or directory by using the Files class
  • Recursively access a directory tree by using the DirectoryStream and FileVisitor interfaces
  • Find a file by using the PathMatcher interface, and use Java SE 8 I/O improvements, including Files.find(), Files.walk(), and lines() methods
  • Observe the changes in a directory by using the WatchService interface


  • Define and write functional interfaces and describe the interfaces of the java.util.function package
  • Describe a lambda expression; refactor the code that uses an anonymous inner class to use a lambda expression; describe type inference and target typing
  • Develop code that uses the built-in interfaces included in the java.util.function package, such as Function, Consumer, Supplier, UnaryOperator, Predicate, and Optional APIs, including the primitive and binary variations of the interfaces
  • Develop code that uses a method reference, including refactoring a lambda expression to a method reference

Java Collections

  • Develop code that uses diamond with generic declarations
  • Develop code that iterates a collection, filters a collection, and sorts a collection by using lambda expressions
  • Search for data by using methods, such as findFirst(), findAny(), anyMatch(), allMatch(), and noneMatch()
  • Perform calculations on Java Streams by using count, max, min, average, and sum methods and save results to a collection by using the collect method and Collector class, including the averagingDouble, groupingBy, joining, partitioningBy methods
  • Develop code that uses Java SE 8 collection improvements, including the Collection.removeIf(), List.replaceAll(), Map.computeIfAbsent(), and Map.computeIfPresent() methods
  • Develop  code that uses the merge(), flatMap(), and map() methods on Java Streams

Java Streams

  • Describe the Stream interface and pipelines; create a stream by using the Arrays.stream() and  IntStream.range() methods; identify the lambda operations that are lazy
  • Develop code that uses parallel streams, including decomposition operation and reduction operation in streams



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